Tesla heat pump detailed gives a boost to winter EV range

แหล่งที่มา:ต้นฉบับวันที่:2023-01-24 18:04 เรียกดู:

Tesla last week outlined some of the details that distinguish its heat pump system thats now included throughout its vehicle lineup.

The electric vehicle maker claims that its design performs well in very cold weather, where other heat pumps fall short.

Depending on the exact situation, Tesla claims, its cars might be using as little as a quarter of the energy with the heat pump system than without, to keep the cabin warm. Overall, it can result in up to 20% less energy consumed during cold-weather travel, Tesla saysalthough its unclear if this is specifically referring to the energy consumed in the cabin.

Tesla is by no means the only automaker to find that heat pumps remedyEV cold-weather range loss. It resisted the technology years ago.

Prior to the heat pump, Tesla did have a strategy for using waste heat from the motor and power electronics to help warm the battery, and it claimed boosted cold-weather range without the additional complexity of a heat pump. But the company changed its mind with the heat pump that made its debut in the Model Y.

The answer appears to be that it found a way to make the addition less complex. It designed a so-called super manifold that combines all the refrigerant channels and coolant channels that might otherwise be separate components. As it explains in this video, rather than redesigning the coolant loop, Tesla integrated the heat pump with an octovalve that turns to a different position depending on the mode of operation.

The Tesla video tips that heat pumps are a bit like building air conditioners, carrying heat from a cooler environment (inside) to a warmer environment (outside), only the opposite.

Unlike internal-combustion vehicles, EVs have no engine spewing out waste heat that can be used to heat the cabin. Resistive heating, like that used for space heaters, toasters, or hair dryers, takes a lot of energy away from range.

Heat pumps move heat around rather than generate it, and the physics can sound almost magical: A carefully chosen refrigerantcarries heat energy from its surroundings when its compressed into a gas and then releases heat as it condenses back to a liquid.

Tesla Model S Plaid thermal and heat pump

Heat pumps are one of the keys to help reduceEV cold-weather range lossbecause of that energy calculation. On an energy-in, energy-out basis, according to Bosch, one of the makers of heat pumps, a heat pump drawing 1 kw will generate the heat equivalent of between 2 and 3 kw. Mahle, another supplier, says its heat pump can recover 20% of cold-weather range loss.

There are some caveats to this. Heat pumps involve a lot of added cost and complexity; they can generate some noise that interrupts the silent EV experience; and they often dont provide the quick results that resistive heating does. So owners might only see the payoff in efficiency over longer road tripswhen theyll help boost range and make it easier to reach the next charger without sacrificing cabin comfort.

Necessary piece for avoiding winter doldrums

Increasingly, companies are concluding that its worth the tradeoffs. General Motors, for instance, has emphasized that real-world advantage is behind why its decided to includeheat pumps in all upcoming GM EVs.

There are new ways to configure the system, specifically for cold-weather gains. Rivian is in the process ofredesigning its thermal systemto include a heat pump, and in the latestheat pump for Hyundai and Kia models, heat scavenged from an array of drive components helps nudge the liquid refrigerant back to a gas, reducing its load and boosting the energy payoff.

Systems that have a heat pump combine it with resistive heating, for quick defogging/defrosting of the windshield and rapid cabin heat as its needed, then it passes the baton when it can to the heat pump. As the schematic for the system in the Toyota Prius Prime underscores, they can get very complex.

This isnt the first sighting of Teslas heat-pump design. In 2020, manufacturing expert Sandy Munro, of Munro & Associates, known for his teardown insights, posted a videoabout the new component.

Teslas own design hasnt been completely trouble-free, either. The company has to remedy an issue with an improperly operating heat-pump valve, leading to depletion of refrigerant in the system and, potentially, some fogged-up windows. ThisTesla heat-pump recallcampaign, affecting nearly 27,000 vehicles from the 2020 through 2022 model years, was remedied with an over-the-air update.

Sign up to get the latest green car and environmental news, delivered to your inbox daily!

I agree to receive emails from Green Car Reports. I understand that I can unsubscribe at any time.Privacy Policy.

Lucid offers one of many expected luxury EV leases tapping into federal money. Aptera details the first of its three-wheeled solar EVs due to have up to a 1,000-mile range. Tesla claims its heat pump is better. And Lightyear bails on its solar-car starting line and skips to the future. This and more, here at Green Car Reports. The Aptera Launch Edition solar EV detailed Friday will offer a range of 400 miles on battery power and potentially up to 40 miles of additional range per day from the sunalthough it wont offer Tesla Supercharging quite yet. Federal EV tax credit rules...

Valmet currently produces the niche Lightyear 0 in Finland, but the company has halted production and Lightyear now says its focus is on the Lightyear 2.

Leasing may become a more popular option for those seeking high-end luxury EVs as an unintended side effect of the Inflation Reduction Act.

The initial version of Apteras three-wheel, super-efficiency solar EV may go 400 miles from just 42 kwh.

Which automaker revealed this week that some of its front-wheel-drive EVs are going rear-wheel-drive? Which charging network did Shell announce plans to buy? This is our look back at the Week In Reverseright here at Green Car Reportsfor the week ending January 20, 2023. The 2023 Jeep...

Hertz has big plans to deploy EVs to U.S. cities. Nikola is making hydrogen refueling mobile. And GM is considering a small electric truck. This and more, here at Green Car Reports. GM is considering the addition of a $30,000 compact electric pickup to its lineup. The project is reportedly part of...

Through a partnership called Hertz Electrifies, it will help bring EVs to more rental and rideshare customers by making sure charging is in place.

The company says the first mobile hydrogen refueling unit has been released for market operation, and the concept will be displayed next week.

Chevy or not, if GM moves fast, it might have the only inexpensive electric pickup available in the U.S.

Shell snatches up Volta and its unique ad-subsidized charging model. Elaphe and McLaren Applied Technologies aspire to make in-wheel motors quicker and more efficient. And we take the Jeep Wrangler 4xe plug-in hybrid for a winter drive. This and more, here at Green Car Reports. The 2023 Jeep...

The 2023 Jeep Wrangler Rubicon 4xe retains all its capability in a more efficient package, but we wish it had more juice.

Could hydrogen fuel-cell tech replace aircraft jet engines?

Test drive review: 2023 Jeep Wrangler Rubicon 4xe wears plug-in hybrid off-road crown

Aptera solar EV Launch Edition: 400-mile range, no Supercharging yet

Stephen Edelstein - Contributing Writer

Report: GM considering $30,000 small electric pickup

Shell buys Volta network and its free EV charging

Stephen Edelstein - Contributing Writer

Racing tech may bring efficient in-wheel motors into more EVs

Stephen Edelstein - Contributing Writer

Do Not Sell or Share My Personal Information

© 2023 MH Sub I, LLC. All Rights Reserved. Stock photography byizmostock.

Sign up to get the latest green car and environmental news, delivered to your inbox daily!

I agree to receive emails from Green Car Reports. I understand that I can unsubscribe at any time.Privacy Policy.

Never Miss a Green Car Reports Story

I agree to receive emails from Green Car Reports. I understand that I can unsubscribe at any time.Privacy Policy.